From Chile to Lebanon, via Guinea, Ecuador or Iraq, protest movements have increased in recent weeks around the world. Overview of the main popular uprisings observed since the beginning of October:
When? Since the 18th of October.
What trigger? The increase of metro tickets in Santiago.
Where we are? Despite the suspension of the rise followed by social measures proposed by the conservative president Sebastian Piñera, the challenge to socio-economic conditions and inequalities has amplified and extended to other regions. A general strike started on October 23rd.
What human balance? 18 dead.
When? Since October 17th.
What trigger? A new tax on calls made via WhatsApp messaging.
Where we are? The government of Saad Hariri quickly canceled the measure and announced urgent economic reforms. But the protest movement, demanding the departure of the entire political class, continues to grow from north to south of the country, causing its near-paralysis.
What human balance? Peaceful demonstrations, enamelled of some clashes.
When? Since the 21st of October.
What trigger? The controversial vote of the presidential election of October 20, giving almost victor the outgoing head of state, Evo Morales.
Where we are? Several regions are the scene of violent incidents. On October 23, a general strike began in Santa Cruz, the economic capital and opposition stronghold, before spreading. The Socialist leader, who described the move as a “coup”, claimed victory on 24.
What human balance? Wounded in clashes between supporters and detractors of Evo Morales.
When? Since the 7th of October.
What trigger? The project loaned to the outgoing president Alpha Condé, 81, to run for his own succession in 2020 and to change the Constitution to this end.
Where we are? Demonstrations involving thousands of Guineans follow one another at the call of the National Front for the Defense of the Constitution (FNDC), a coalition of opposition parties, unions and members of civil society.
What human balance? A dozen deaths.
When? Since October 1st.
What trigger? Spontaneous calls on social networks to demand work and functional public services.
Where we are? After a week of fiercely repressed protest, the government announced social measures, but no in-depth reforms. The street wants a new Constitution and a total renewal of the political class. On Friday, the protest resumed, with a new surge of violence, fanned by the Shiite leader Moqtada Sadr.
What human balance? More than 150 deaths the first week. More than a dozen for the single day of Friday.
When? Since October 23rd.
What trigger? The violence erupted in the capital Addis Ababa before spreading into the Oromia region, when supporters of the controversial opponent Jawar Mohammed took to the streets, burning tires and erecting barricades, suspecting the current prime minister. Abiy Ahmed to prepare an attack against him.
Where we are? Originally directed against the then Nobel Peace Prize winner, the violence has escalated into ethnic clashes.
What human balance? 67 dead.
When? From October 1st to 13th.
What trigger? The rise in the price of fuels.
Where we are? After 12 days of protests, an agreement was reached between the indigenous movement, spearheading the protest, and President Lenin Moreno, who withdrew the controversial decree.
What human balance? Eight dead and 1340 wounded.
Other movements started earlier in the year continue:
AT Hong Kong, a protest movement was born on June 9, triggered by a bill authorizing extraditions to mainland China. Near-daily demonstrations and actions, bringing together up to two million people in this territory of 7.3 million inhabitants, plunged the former British colony into its worst political crisis since the handover in 1997.
The project was suspended at the beginning of September but the demands widened to the denunciation of the decline of liberties and the growing interference of Beijing in the affairs of its semi-autonomous region. Initially peaceful, the demonstrations degenerated into violent clashes between militants and police. Many pro-democracy activists have been attacked by supporters of Beijing's power.
In AlgeriaAbdelaziz Bouteflika's decision to run for a fifth term sparked a wave of peaceful protests on 22 February.
The Algerian president resigned in early April, but protests continued, calling for the departure of the entire political apparatus. The “Hirak” (movement) rejects the holding of a presidential election, announced on December 12 by the interim power, seeing only one way for the “system” to remain in power.
In Spainriots erupted on October 14 in Catalonia after the condemnation of nine separatist leaders to heavy prison terms for the attempted secession of the region in 2017. In six days of mobilization, nearly 600 people were injured. Major pro-independence organizations have again called for protests this Saturday in the streets of Barcelona.